In this essay, I attempt to analyze how Mormon leaders have confronted and tried to eradicate first sodomy and later, homosexuality - and conversely, how Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Mormons have responded to Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho religion. In doing so, it became apparent to me that Mormon women found that the intensity of female homosociality  available in Mormon structures created a vital space in which they could explore passionate, romantic relationships with each other.
At the viscrete time I have uncovered some of the problematics of male homosociality - its power to arbitrarily defend or exile men accused of entering into Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho relationships with other men. During the early 's Mormon founder Joseph Smith deified Woman seeking casual sex Castalia North Carolina when he introduced the doctrine of a Father and Mother in Heaven - a divine, actively heterosexual couple Idago of earthly sexual relationships.
As Mormon bishop T. Eugene Shoemaker recently posited: Van Wagoner explains that Smith's "emphasis on procreation became the basis for the Mormon concept of disrcete progress to divinity.
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Smith explained that God was an exalted Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho man and that mortal existence was a testing ground for men to begin to progress toward exalted godhood.
Salvation became a family affair revolving around a husband whose plural Pcoatello and children were sealed to him for eternity under the 'new and everlasting covenant'.
Polygamy thus bound together all of Mormon theology and cosmology, while simultaneously defining early Mormon sexuality and setting Mormons off as a "peculiar Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho - a separate and elite community of believers and practicants. This separatism, which the sexual deviance of polygamy created, was a highly effective means for the Mormons to gain social and political power amongst their own members.
However, while practicing their own sexual perversion i. In feminist Adrienne Rich's ground-breaking essay "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence" she describes her Loooking of a "lesbian continuum" on which she believes all women exist, whether they identify themselves as Lesbian or not.
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This continuum is "a range - through each woman's life and throughout history - of woman-identified experience, not simply the fact that a woman has had or consciously desired genital sexual experience with another woman". For Rich, this Lesbianism easily encompasses many more forms of Illinois oral sex "intensity between and among women, including the sharing of a rich inner life, the bonding against male tyranny, the giving and receiving of practical and political support.
Lloking some critics Loooking polygamy as a form of male tyranny over women, I find that many Mormon women subversively reconstructed polygamy as a means Horny women in Newgulf, TX escaping male domination on many other levels, in what I call heroic acts of Lesbian resistance.
The potential for female homosocial relationships is found among the polygamous "sister- Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho of Milford Shipp. This was possible only because her sister-wives cared for her three children in Utah while she was studying back east, pooling their resources to pay her tuition. Her sister-wives also wrote her encouraging letters, while she described those of her husband as "harsh", Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho and sharp".
Shipp returned to Salt Lake City, she set up duscrete thriving medical practice and made enough money to send her other sister-wives through medical college or midwifery training. Indeed, her biographer claims that her sister-wives' "role in ensuring Ellis's professional advancement stands as a moving testimony to the close relationships possible among Mormon plural wives. Milford Shipp was almost Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho uninvolved in the lives of his wives.
He gave them important marital status and fathered their children. Otherwise, "in disctete the wives and children Loooing to fend for themselves".
Shipp recorded in her private journal, "How Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho to contemplate the picture of a family where each one works for the interest, advancement, and well-being of all.
Even more to the point is Ellis' statement, also from Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho journal, about "how pure and heavenly is the diwcrete of sisters in the holy order of polygamy.
Despite the fact that Joseph Smith deified, eternalized, and pluralized heterosexuality through polygamy and temple ritual, early Mormon women found that their bodies, sensuality, and desires were neither tamed nor contained by obedience to the institution of polygamy.
I believe that many women found creative, unique, and intensely meaningful ways to confess and express their desire for other women. IdagoLocal Fuck Buddy Bridger Montana
Carol Lasser, has documented that Victorian women in America, in order to formalize "Romantic Friendships" with other women, sometimes married brothers, becoming sisters-in-law and sharing a surname. She theorizes that marrying brothers "deepened their intimacy, extending it in new directions, further complicating the intricate balance of emotional and material ties, and perhaps offering a symbolic consummation of their passion" for each other.
The unique arrangements of Mormon polygamous households provided a potential medium for Lesbian expression among women who could easily albeit covertly Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho each other's bodies through the gaze of their shared husband.
Indeed at fo one Mormon woman went Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho far as to request that her husband marry polygamously after she fell in love with another woman, so that the two women could openly live together.
Sarah Louisa Bouton married Joseph Felt in as his first wife but according to a biography, aroundLouie the masculinized nickname she used met and "fell in love with" a young woman in her local LDS congregation named Alma Elizabeth Lizzie Mineer. But Lizzie's new responsibilities Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho bearing and raising children evidently proved too great a strain for her and Louie's relationship.
Five years later Louie Felt Adult want real sex NC in love with "another beautiful Latter-day Saint girl" named Lizzie Liddell, and again Joseph obligingly married her for Louie's sake.
Thus Louie "opened her home and shared her love" with this second Lizzie. In33 year old Louie Felt met 19 year-old May Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho, and they also fell in love.
This time, however, May did not marry Joseph Felt. In May moved in with Louie, and Joseph permanently moved out of the house Louie had built and bought on her own.
These two women lived together for almost 40 years, and together presided over three of Mormonism's most significant institutions: According to their recent biographer, Felt and Anderson's relationship was a "symbiotic partnership with each compensating for the weaknesses and complementing the strengths of the other". The Children's Friend biography more bluntly declared that discrege friendship which had started when Sister Felt and Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho Anderson] met Those who watched their devotion to each other declare that there never were more ardent lovers than these two".
The same biography also calls the beginning of their relationship a "time of love feasting", and makes it clear that the two women shared the same bed.
For centuries, Dating Arlington for matures biblical characters David and Jonathan have been classic signifiers of male-male desire and Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho, because in the Hebrew scriptures, it was written in 2 Samuel 1: See David-Edward Desmond's gravestone for another Mormon reference to this homoerotic scripture.
While polygamy was instigated by Mormon men but subsequently appropriated by their wives as a powerful source for homosocialitythe women themselves created structures and discourses of sorority which allowed Lesbian expression.
The all-female Relief Society and Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Association, as well Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho other early expressions of Mormon feminism, are all examples of female homosocial enclaves within the larger, male- dominated structures of power. In the papers of Women want sex Davy Lesbian poet Kate Thomas is the clipping of a poem which appears to have been printed in the Young Women's Journal at the turn of the century.
The poem, written by Sarah E. Pearson and entitled "Sister to Sister", beautifully describes the intensity of homosocial sorority that Pearson encountered "in the sunlight of the Gospel of Christ". For Pearson, Mormonism did not divide women against each other, but made of them sisters, and. Freeze, a fifty-year veteran of both the Young Ladies' Mutual Improvement Association and Primary general boards, recalled in that "through these [all-female] agencies the women were seeking 'the life more abundant', desiring to bless and comfort each other and to cultivate the longing for higher things than the Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho pleasures of the day could afford", again recalling Adrienne Rich's definition of the Lesbian continuum.
Felt and May Anderson of the Primary apparently had Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho troubles reconciling their passionate relationship and their religion, other early Mormon women found it more difficult.
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For example, Kate Thomasa prolific, turn-of-the-century Mormon playwright and poet, withdrew somewhat from Mormonism while exploring her attraction to other women. Thomas, who never married, left Utah for New York City and Europe Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho but still maintained contact with Mormonism by writing lessons and poetry for the Relief Society and Young Ladies' manuals and magazines while on her extended absences.
However, some of her poetry of that same period reflects a growing disaffection with Mormonism.
Her father, Richard Kendall Thomas was avidly theatrical, acting as choreographer for Lookong Salt Lake Theater in its early days and then turning the family barn into a professional theater called the Barnacle.
At the age of nineteen Thomas began keeping a private journal of what she called her "love poetry" while attending courses in Salt Lake City at the LDS Business College.
This Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho consists almost entirely Lookkng love poems written to other women.
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Thomas also became an outspoken peace activist, anarchist, supporter of the very controversial League of Nations, and practitioner Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho Yoga. While having difficulties with her religion, it is clear in her writings that Thomas was able to reconcile her sexuality with her spirituality:.
But were I all the bards that ever sung Turned into one transcendent immortelle It seems to me I still would lack the tongue To say how long I'd love her or how well! Fall on her daily doubled o'er and o'er When world on world and worlds again shall roll God grant that we two shall still discrtee soul to soul!
In other poems written around the same time, I believe she used the word "gay" as Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho double entendre to mean both happiness Poactello same-sex desire. The following short poem is an example:. A scarlet West; An East merged into eventide. A brown plain And by my side The one - the Sexy ladies want sex tonight Warrenville in all the world I love the best!
Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho night's gay mask - The outward wildness and Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho inward ache I cast off forever; from her lips I take joy never-ceasing.
Brown plain and her kiss Are all I ask. The word "gay" was used to describe same-sex male desire in the United States as early as That it meant homosexual desire to her is supported by the fact that the only time she used the word "gay" outside of poems written to other women, was in a poem about "Gay Narcissus", who has traditionally signified same-sex Pocatellk male desire.North Dakota, ND Horny Women
The following is a brief passage:. She raised her eyes.
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There looking I beheld The Sound of Music through the eyes of love. One historian commented that in this poem "the poet is speaking in the voice of one female to another Cornelia Cora Kasius was another Mormon Lesbian who left Utah for New York City, where Women wants casual sex Itmann West Virginia could gain economic security and career advancement, as well as explore Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho sexuality like thousands of other women who flocked to the anonymity of a large metropolis.
She also worked for 17 years as the publications editor for the Family Service Association of America, authored a number of books on social work, and in was honored by the National Conference on Social Welfare for her leadership role in social work. In the late s Kasius moved to Grammercy Park where she remained until Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho death in June Her family still lovingly remembers Cora for her intellect, humor, warmth, and generosity.
These women found avenues for exploring passion between women within official Mormon structures such as the Relief Society. Thus it comes as no surprise that the Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho radical discourse of Mormon sorority, that of early Mormon feminism, also Friend is good Waterbury Connecticut vital space in which women could desire other women romantically and sexually.
Historian of Mormon feminism, Maxine Hanks, has recovered one of the most important documents relating to Lesbianism in Victorian America: In the 's Mormon women began publishing an ecclesiastically sanctioned feminist periodical called the Woman's Exponent.
The 15 April issue reprinted from a New York paper an article by the pseudonymous "Fanny Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho, tellingly entitled "Women Lovers". To clarify the possibly confusing wording of the document, I should explain that two kinds of "women discretf are being described: The complete text of this brief but remarkable article follows:.
Women Lovers Perhaps you do not know it, but there are women who fall in love with each other.
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Woe be to the unfortunate she, who does the courting! All the cursedness of ingenuity peculiar to the sex is employed by "the other party" in tormenting her. She will flirt with women Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho the score who are brighter and handsomer than her victim.
She will call on them oftener. She will praise their best bonnets and go into ecstasies over their dresses. She will write them more pink notes [love letters], and wear their 'tin- types,'[photos] and when despair has culminated, and sore-hearted Araminta takes to her bed in consequence, then only will this conquering 'she' step off her pedestal to pick up her dead and wounded.
But then, women must keep their hand in. This significant Looking for discrete Pocatello Idaho colors the women of the Exponentand indeed of the entire early Mormon feminist movement, a distinct shade of lavender. As Gay Mormon historian D. Michael Quinn explains, Louise L. Greene's decision, as editor of the Woman's Exponentto reprint this brief essay "indicates her assumption that 'Women Lovers' was of interest to Horny women in Hunlock Creek, PA women.